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Is a DKIM / Domain Key important for email authentication?

The short answer is yes, DKIM or a domain key is a critical part of the authentication process. The reason is that DKIM (domain key) is one of the crtical elements of email authentication is because the DKIM public/private Keys contain vital information for receiving mail servers to verify that the MAIL:FROM has been signed by the mail server with a private key that matches the public key published in the DNS.

The reason why this was not a sufficient authentication process on its own is because email often has two email addresses (see how email works ) being used to send the email. The MAIL:FROM and the SMTP:FROM. The SMTP:FROM is authenticated used an SPF record.

Am I able to use the DKIM private and public key on multiple servers.

Yes you can install the DKIM private key on as many mail servers as you wish, as long as the corresponding DNS SPF record remains untouched.

Caution: A DKIM private key is a very important component of your email authentication, store this key as securely as possible.